This product does not contain ingredients that are able to reduce fine lines and wrinkles or help with skin elasticity, but it can improve the look of the skin temporarily through moisturization. Well-moisturized skin might also be able to repair the sun damage better.
The biggest anti-aging effect in this product comes from sun protection. Sun damage is the main factor causing early signs of skin aging. We, however, do not recommend using this product as a sunscreen because the protection it offers is not strong enough).
This product contains ingredients () that could help reduce hyperpigmentation (for example, post-acne marks or age spots) in theory, but there is not enough evidence that they actually work.
The biggest effect for evening out skin tone in this product comes from sun protection. Sun damage is the main factor causing age spots, darkening of post-acne marks and other discolorations. This is why sun protection is the best strategy for maintaining an even skin tone. We, however, do not recommend using this product as a sunscreen because the protection it offers is not strong enough).
This product can help improve hydration of the skin with the two types of ingredients.
The first type is called “humectants”:
these ingredients help attract water. When humectants are on the surface of the skin, they “pull in” the moisture from the outside environment, or from within deeper layers of the skin. The following ingredients in this product do the job: glycerin.
This product also contains ingredients called “occlusives”. They help reduce the speed with which our skin loses moisture to the outside environment. These ingredients also help soften the upper layer of the skin, so it feels less tight and nicer to the touch. The following ingredients in this product do the job: caprylic/capric triglyceride, cetearyl alcohol.
The following ingredients in this product are especially good for supporting the skin barrier and helping with the hydration level: panthenol
Octisalate. A UV filter. It offers some protection against the sun rays that cause sunburn (UVB), but does not protect against the most aging sun rays (UVA). It loses its effectiveness quickly when exposed to sunlight. It is an organic, or so called "chemical" sunscreen
Avobenzone. A broad spectrum sunscreen meaning that it can protect against both UVA rays. Currently, it is the only sunscreen ingredient available in the US (approved by the FDA) with the peak absorbance within the UVA I range. It loses its effectiveness quickly when exposed to sunlight. It is an organic, or so called "chemical" sunscreen. When used in low concentrations, helps stabilize the product formulation
City Shield SPF50 Lotion
Antioxidant Plus Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30,
Peptide-Rich Defense Moisturizer SPF 50
SPF 50 Lotion Sunscreen, Water Resistant,
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